Obstacle Sensing Walking Stick for Visually Impaired Persons : Block Diagram

From the block diagram given above you can see that this project has four major parts.

The Power Bank

Finding a good power source for this project was a challenge, the power supply should have to be mobile, so that we cannot use power adapters. Also it had to be rechargeable so that it is economical for day long use to. And last but not the least! It had to be low cost. So we picked up a rechargeable 5v power bank used to charge mobile phones or tablets. Due to mass production and high demand as a mobile accessory these are dirt cheap! A common 2700mAH power bank with USB type socket is shown below.Obstacle Sensing Walking Stick for Visually Impaired Persons Block Diagram

These can be charged in 2hours using a 5v charger. The charger is plugged into the wall socket and 5v output from the charger is given to the power bank and allowed to charge for 2 hours. The power bank must be detached from the project while charging.

Ultrasonic Range Finders

These are used to measure the distance to the obstacle. They emit sound waves with their frequency lying in the ultrasonic spectrum (more than 20Kz) and thus inaudible to human ears. These sound waves goes to the obstacle and bounces back to the detectors. We use a common HC-SR04 rangefinder module for this purpose.

PIC Microcontroller

This is the heart of the project. It reads distance to obstacle using the sensor and also commands the buzzer. There are several member in the PIC MCU family, but we have chosen PIC16F877A because it is very popular, easily available and is recommended in the academic course of many universities of Bharat.Obstacle Sensing Walking Stick for Visually Impaired Persons Block Diagram schematich


A small 10mm diameter 5 volt buzzer is used to alert the user about the obstacles. It beeps once for a obstacle in left, twice for a obstacle in front and thrice for an obstacle in right. You can also connect a vibrator motor in parallel with the buzzer. This will provide a vibrational feedback along with audio beeps.



For more detail: Obstacle Sensing Walking Stick for Visually Impaired Persons : Block Diagram

About The Author

Ibrar Ayyub

I am an experienced technical writer holding a Master's degree in computer science from BZU Multan, Pakistan University. With a background spanning various industries, particularly in home automation and engineering, I have honed my skills in crafting clear and concise content. Proficient in leveraging infographics and diagrams, I strive to simplify complex concepts for readers. My strength lies in thorough research and presenting information in a structured and logical format.

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