HD44780 16×2 Char LCD Interfacing with microcontroller

Project Description:-

In this project we are going to learn various things about this chip set and displaying text on this LCD. The HD44780 16×2 char LCD screen Use 8bit and 4 bit parallel interface with backlight.

This Primary Objective in this project are:-

1.  Displaying  “Hello Word!! LCD ” message on the scree.
2.   Interfacing The LCD to the Microcontroller Using 8bit  Mode and 4 Bit Mode.
3.  Generating and Displaying Custom Char on the LCD Screen. clik here for custom char


as i have mentioned  before this type of lcd are connected to microcontroller using parallel 8bit or 4bit lines.
using 8 bit method is quite simple but take 8 lines (for data or command)+ 3 control signal total 11 line , i guess few small microcontrollers don’t even have that much of I/O lines ,so in 4 bit mode total 7 lines (sometimes 6 ) are required .  in this tutorial i will show you with both of the methods .

HD44780 16x2 Char LCD Interfacing with microcontroller Pin description

1 Vss GND
2 Vdd  + 3V or + 5V
3 Vo Contrast Adjustment
4  RS H/L Register Select Signal
5 R/W H/L Read/Write Signal
6 E  H → L Enable Signal
7  DB0 H/L Data Bus Line
8  DB1 H/L Data Bus Line
9  DB2 H/L Data Bus Line
10  DB3 H/L Data Bus Line
11  DB4 H/L Data Bus Line
12  DB5 H/L Data Bus Line
13  DB6 H/L Data Bus Line
14  DB7 H/L Data Bus Line
15 A/Vee + 3.5V for LED/Negative Voltage Output
16 K K Power Supply for B/L (OV)

in 8 bit mode all the Data line DB0 to DB7 are being used for transferring the the data to lcd but in 4-bit mode only 4 line form DB4 to DB7 are being used to transfer the  8 bit wide data in two peaces one after another .

we can’t display any data on the lcd until all the required internal command register of the lcd are not being properly initialized.
to know every thing about this lcd controller .. you can go through it’s data sheet
click here to download HD44780 data sheet
so now we will learn how to initialize the lcd.

LCD Commands

Clear Display

clear  and place the cursor in the first position (address 0). The bit I / D to 1 by default.

RS R / W DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Return the cursor to Home

Place the cursor in the home position (address 0) and make the display starts to move from its original position. The contents of the RAM display data (DD RAM) remains unchanged. The address of the RAM for display data (DD RAM) is set to 0.

RS R / W DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 X

Entry Mode in Set

Set cursor moving direction and specify that the display moves to the next position of the screen or not. These operations are performed during reading or writing of the DD RAM or CG RAM. To view usually set bit S = 0.

RS R / W DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 I / D S

Display ON / OFF Control

Turn on or off by turning ON / OFF both the LCD (D) as the cursor (C) and whether or not this last flash (B).

RS R / W DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 D C B

Cursor or Display Shift

Move the cursor to move the LCD without changing the memory contents of the display data DD RAM.

RS R / W DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
0 0 0 0 0 1 S / C R / L X X

HD44780 16x2 Char LCD Interfacing with microcontroller SchematicFunction Set

Set the size of interface with the data bus (DL), number of lines in the LCD (N) and character type (F).

RS R / W DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0
0 0 0 0 1 DL N F X X

Set the CG RAM Address

The LCD module defined in addition to all the ASCII character set allows the user to define 4 or 8 characters. The composition of these characters is saved to a CG RAM memory called up to 64 bytes. Each user defined character consists of 16 or 8 bytes that are stored in successive positions of the CG RAM.

Using this instruction sets the CG RAM memory address from which the bytes will be stored that define a character. Running this command all the data that is subsequently read or write this memory made from CG RAM.


For more detail: HD44780 16×2 Char LCD Interfacing with microcontroller 

About The Author

Ibrar Ayyub

I am an experienced technical writer holding a Master's degree in computer science from BZU Multan, Pakistan University. With a background spanning various industries, particularly in home automation and engineering, I have honed my skills in crafting clear and concise content. Proficient in leveraging infographics and diagrams, I strive to simplify complex concepts for readers. My strength lies in thorough research and presenting information in a structured and logical format.

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