This is a simple application of internal 10-bit ADC(analog to digital converter) of PIC16F676 microcontroller.you can use this circuit to measure up to 30 v dc. the possible applications are on bench top power supply or as a panel meter in various system.
as you can seen in the schematic the 47k resistor and 10 k trim pot is connected ias a voltage divider configuration .we all know very well that by default pic micro controller ADC reference voltage is set to vcc(+5v in this case) . so what we have to do is make such voltage divider that can divide out maximum range 30 volts to 5 volts . so we need is Vin/6 ==> 30/6 =5v voltage divider . and to keep as less as possible attenuation on the under test voltage we have to keep the voltage divider resistor value in few thousand ohms because it takes very little current from the target but as much to drive adc of pic.
10bit adc resolution we get 1023 maximum count
with 5 v reference we get 5/1023 = 0.0048878 V/Count
means if the adc count is 188 then input voltage is 188 * 0.0048878 == 0.918 volts
but now with the voltage divider the maximum voltage is 30v so the calculations
will be 30/1023= 0.02932 volts/count
if now we get 188 then 188*0.02932==5.5 Volts
you can also increase or decrease the range by changing resistor network and the calculations a little bit.
the capacitor 0.1uf makes the adc input a bit stable because 10bit adc is really sensitive .
the 5.1v zener will provide over votage protection to the internal adc because it wont allow voltage more than 5.1v.
Accuracy and calibration
overall accuracy of this circuit is great but it totally depends on the values of 47K resistor and 10k trim pot . as fine as you can go by adjustment of the trim pot your accuracy goes fine.
calibration of this circuit is done by adjustment of the 10k trimpot around value of 7.5k or so .
all you have to do is take any standard power like 5v or 12v and apply that to the input of the resistor network and adjust the trimpot until you get correct value on the display