Efficient Energy Management System with Smart Grid
Efficient Energy Management System with Smart Grid: Efficient Energy Management System was inspired by Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). Efficient Energy Management System with Smart Grid basically controls, monitors loads and power flow. It also provides protection to loads.We usually have some critical and non-critical loads. Critical loads should never be turned off. Non-critical loads can be turned on or off depending on Power consumption and supply. In home, we have infinite supply by main grid. But power consumption is limited by current enduring limits of supply wiring. When user turns more loads on, current flowing into main wire increases. If user continues to turn more and more loads, then a limit is reached where current exceeds wiring capacity causing fuse to burn or circuit breaker to open the circuit. But switch all loads off if current limit exceeds is not a good idea. Here our efficient energy management system comes to play a pivotal rule.
Need of Efficient Energy Management System with Smart Grid
Fundamental of this project is to measure voltage and current through each load. All other manipulations are done with the help of current and voltage. For example, by measuring load through each load and then adding up all currents, we can measure power consumption by all appliances. This process can also be used to switch off non critical loads if power consumption exceeds user defined limit. So, in this way we can only switch our non-critical loads off rather turning our whole home into dark by burning of fuse or open circuit by circuit breaker. Here a tiny microcontroller comes to rescue.
Working of Efficient Energy Management System with Smart Grid
First task is to measure voltage of main supply. We can’t do it by direct using ADC. ADC can’t read more than 5V. So, we have to design our circuit in such a way that it reads less than 5V but later it converts into main voltage using coding done in microC. So, here a potential divider helps to sort this problem out. We choose our resistances in such a way that it gives near approximation.
Although this picture is taken from google, but we implemented same circuit with resistance values 20K and 100K. We measure voltage around 20K which is always less than 5 if input voltage is less than 25. We used 12V as input.
2nd task was to measure current. As we know, for accurate measurement of current by ammeter, resistance of ammeter should be as small as possible not able to change circuit current. Special shunt resistance are available for that purpose. Since, in our small energy management system, current was more than 1 amp, current readings made by 1 ohm shunt resistance connected in series weren’t accurate.