DUAL CHANNEL ARBITRARY FUNCTION GENERATOR WITH 40 TO 240MHZ MODELS




Sine frequency up to 240MHz with 1μHz resolution Up to 100MHz high-resolution pulse generator Arbitrary waveforms up to 16bits at 800MSa/s Wideband noise generator.

DUAL CHANNEL ARBITRARY FUNCTION GENERATOR WITH 40 TO 240MHZ MODELS

The TGF4000 Series out-performs other generators in its price range by offering models at up to 240MHz with low harmonic distortion and phase noise. Audio band THD is significantly better than similar generators at just 0.05%.  The pulse generator function offers an exceptional pulse width resolution of 100ps over a period range from 10ns to 1000s. The pulse edge speed is independently variable from 3ns to 800s. Pulse jitter is dramatically lower than any comparable generator at only 30ps. The two channels can be operated completely independently as if they were two separate generators. Coupled operation is available for frequency, amplitude and output on/off enabling simultaneous output changes on both channels. Relative phase can be set from -360 degrees to +360 degrees with 0.001 degree resolution.

The main outputs can provide up to 10V pk-pk into 50Ω (20V pk-pk EMF) for frequencies up to 80MHz. High levels of DC offset can be set in conjunction with low signal levels, and the attenuator can be fixed to prevent glitches when changing levels. Amplitudes can be entered as peak to peak voltage plus offset or in terms of high level and low level. The amplitudes are shown relative to a 50Ω load impedance or as the open circuit EMF values. Alternatively, the user can enter any load value between 1Ω to 10kΩ and the amplitude will be calculated accordingly. A wide variety of waveforms can be generated between 1µHz and 240MHz with high resolution and accuracy. Sine waves are produced with low distortion up to 240MHz. Square waves with fast rise and fall times can be generated at up to 100MHz. Linear ramp waves are produced to 5MHz. Ramp and square waves also have variable symmetry. The TGF4000 can generate high resolution, low jitter, variable edge time pulses to 100MHz with variable period, pulse width and amplitude.

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Definition of a Diode A diode is a non-linear semiconductor device with two terminals that allows the flow of current in one direction. The two terminals of a diode are cathode (negative) and anode (positive). Construction of a Diode The layers of doped semiconductor materials form a PN junction diode. Doping is a process of adding impurities to lower the resistivity of the semiconductor. The N type material has excess electrons as majority carriers, while P type material has holes (positive charge carriers). The P type material and N type material combine to form a PN junction that is a thin layer between the two opposite majority charge carriers. Operation and IV Characteristics The current in a diode flows from anode to cathode in one direction. The relationship between the voltages and currents associated with the diode terminals is known as the characteristic curve. This curve describes the operation of a diode or its biasing conditions and they are as follows: • Forward Bias – When the anode or P-type material is connected to a higher voltage than the cathode or N-type material, then the width of PN junction decreases and current flows from anode to cathode. • Reverse Bias – When the cathode or N-type material is connected to a higher voltage than the anode or P-type material, then the width of PN junction increases and diode will not conduct electricity. The formula expressing the relationship of current and voltage of a diode is as follows: diode-equation Where, Is = reverse saturation current (typically < µA) k = Boltzmann’s constant, e = electron charge, T = temperature, Applications of Diodes in Circuits A variety of diode applications include protection of circuits by limiting the voltage with clipping and clamping, voltage multiplication i.e. doubling or tripling the input voltage, turning AC to DC with rectifier circuits, and amplitude modulation i.e. non-linear mixing of two voltages. Switching A diode is used in a variety of switching applications to modify the input waveform or protect circuits from excess voltage. Some of the switching applications are as follows: Clipping or Limiting The function of the diode in a clipping circuit is to cut off or limit part of an input signal. A simple clipper circuit consists of a diode and a resistor that clips a part of input waveform without distorting the remaining applied signal. The clipper circuit, input and output waveforms are shown below: Clamping A diode is used in clamping circuits to change the DC value of a signal by charging a capacitor with the appropriate value. It will provide the desired DC level when connected with a voltage source in series. Rectification The most significant application of diode is in rectifier circuits that convert AC voltage to DC voltage. Diodes are used individually or in combination with different arrangements to make a variety of rectifier circuits including half-wave, full-wave and bridge. Half-Wave Rectifier A half-wave rectifier consists of a single diode connected with a voltage source. A resistor is connected as a load. The diode conducts only when the voltage at anode is higher than cathode, thereby allowing only positive voltages and rejecting negative voltages. Full-Wave Rectifier ∴ Center Tapped Transformer Configuration Center tapped transformer based full-wave rectifier consists of two diodes connected with a center-tapped transformer and it uses both halves of the input sine wave. When the polarity of voltage source is positive on the top and negative at the bottom, the top diode is conducting and the bottom diode blocks the current. In the next cycle, the voltage polarity reverses and bottom diode starts to conduct while top diode blocks current. For more detail:Diodes – Types and Applications
Diodes – Types and Applications

In semiconductor and electronics industry, a diode is a widely used discrete component. It is a significant element in many electronic circuits...

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