A processor is a collection of logic circuits that is designed to efficiently process data. There are a number of processors – processor designs are created for specialised tasks, these include the Central Processing Units (CPU), Graphics Processing Units (GPU), Physics Processing Units (PPU) or Digital Signal Processors. An array or vector processor solves computational queries through a range of interconnected processors that are arranged in the distributed computing model.
Intel, AMD, ARM and Fujitsu are amongst the leading developers of processors and related technologies in the world.
Microprocessors are programmable integrated circuits that can be used to perform a wide range of operations, they can be designed for specific purposes, allowing them to be manufactured in large quantities at low costs. Microprocessors are found in a variety of devices from telephones to Formula 1 technology, and since the first commercially available microprocessors (the Intel 4004 developed in 1971), they have now become smaller, efficient, more powerful and cheaper to manufacture. There are occasions when microprocessor may be used to refer to as a CPU.
Central Processing Units (CPU)
A CPU is the electronic ‘brains’ of a computer, it interprets and executes hardware and software commands. A CPU is fabricated on a single microprocessor (sometimes referred to as a silicon chip) in personal computers, it consists of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) (which performs arithmetical, logical and input / output operations), and a control unit (CU) (which extracts instructions from memory, decodes and executes them).
The design and implementation of CPUs have changed over the years, but the core operations remain the same. Apart from the refinements in processing power and speed, the single core computing component has been superseded by dual, triple, quad, hexa core processors and processor arrays which offer improved performances, because for example they can execute multiple instructions independently.
For more detail: ARM makes software portable in server processor push