The rapid growth in science and technology offers several advantages of using integrated circuits, microprocessors, microcontrollers, embedded chips, etc., in designing electrical and electronics projects and circuits by reducing their size, cost, and complexity. Using these embedded chips and microcontrollers is increasing due to its simplicity and benefits. The microcontrollers can be programmed to perform various tasks based on requirement of the circuit operation. Thus, simply by changing program instructions various tasks can be performed by a single circuit without changing any hardware circuitry of the project. Thus, the application of microcontroller in science and technology is increasing rapidly.
Application of Microcontroller
The microcontrollers are typically used in electrical and electronics projects/circuits. There various types of microcontrollers such as 8051 family of microcontrollers, PIC microcontroller, and so on. But, 8051 microcontroller is frequently used in various applications due to its advantages compared to other microcontrollers. In this article, let us discuss about the application of microcontroller 8051 in science and technology, but, primarily let us have glance about what is microcontroller.
What is Microcontroller
What is microcontroller?, the microcontroller can be simply defined as a microchip or microcomputer or integrated circuit that contains programmable input/output peripherals, processor, and memory. There are various types of microcontrollers among which microcontroller 8051 is used frequently.
The microcontroller 8051 consists of four input/output ports, each port consists of eight pins which are configured as inputs/outputs based on logic state. If logic zero (0) is applied to appropriate input/output port bits, then the microcontroller pin acts as an output pin and there will be zero voltage at that appropriate pin. Similarly, if logic one (1) is applied to appropriate input/output port bits, then the microcontroller pin acts as an input pin and there will be 5V voltage at that appropriate pin.
Application of Microcontroller 8051
The use of microcontroller in various fields such as automobile, aeronautics, space, robotics, electronics, defense application, mobile communications, rail transport, industrial processing, and medical applications is rapidly increasing. Let us discuss about the practical application of microcontroller 8051 in some of the fields mentioned above.
Application of Microcontroller 8051 in Robotics
The advancement in transportation technology is developing the efficient robotic vehicles which can be used for transportation without driver. This obstacle avoidance robotic vehicle (prototype) is one of the major application of microcontroller in robotics.
This robotic project is designed to detect and avoid the obstacles on the robotic vehicle’s path. For this purpose, an ultrasonic sensor pair is used in this project, which is interfaced to microcontroller. If any obstacle is sensed by the ultrasonic sensor, then a signal is given to the microcontroller which in turn generates an appropriate output signal. This output signal is fed to motor driver IC which is interfaced to the motors of the robotic vehicle.
Thus, based on the signals received from the motor driver IC the motors can change the direction (left, right, forward, and backward) of the robotic vehicle to avoid the obstacles (if any are detected by ultrasonic sensor). The speed of the motors can be controlled using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique.
For more detail: Application of Microcontroller in Science and Technology