PIC Controlled Relay Driver using PIC16F84A




Project Summary

This circuit is a relay driver that is based on a PIC16F84A microcontroller. The board includes four relays so this lets us to control four distinct electrical devices. The controlled device may be a heater, a lamp, a computer or a motor. To use this board in the industrial area, the supply part is designed more attentively. To minimise the effects of the ac line noises, a 1:1 line filter transformer is used.

PCB Relay Driver

Project Description

The components are listed below.

1 x PIC16F84A Microcontroller
1 × 220V/12V 3.6VA (or 3.2VA) PCB Type Transformer (EI 38/13.6)
1 x Line Filter (2×10mH 1:1 Transformer)
4 × 12V Relay (SPDT Type)
4 x BC141 NPN Transistor
5 × 2 Terminal PCB Terminal Block
4 × 1N4007 Diode
1 × 250V Varistor (20mm Diameter)
1 x PCB Fuse Holder
1 × 400mA Fuse
2 × 100nF/630V Unpolarized Capacitor
1 × 220uF/25V Electrolytic Capacitor
1 × 47uF/16V Electrolytic Capacitor
1 × 10uF/16V Electrolytic Capacitor
2 × 330nF/63V Unpolarized Capacitor
1 × 100nF/63V Unpolarized Capacitor
1 × 4MHz Crystal Oscillator
2 × 22pF Capacitor
1 × 18 Pin 2 Way IC Socket
4 × 820 Ohm 1/4W Resistor
1 × 1K 1/4W Resistor
1 × 4.7K 1/4W Resistor
1 × 7805 Voltage Regulator (TO220)
1 × 7812 Voltage Regulator (TO220)
1 × 1A Bridge Diode

The transformer is a 220V to 12V, 50Hz and 3.6VA PCB type transformer. The model seen in the photo is HRDiemen E3814056. Since it is encapsulated, the transformer is isolated from the external effects.

{mosgoogle}A 250V 400mA glass fuse is used to protect the circuit from damage due to excessive current.

A high power device which is connected to the same line may form unwanted high amplitude signals while turning on and off. To bypass this signal effects, a variable resistor (varistor) which has a 20mm diameter is paralelly connected to the input.

Another protective component on the AC line is the line filter. It minimises the noise of the line too. The connection type determines the common or differential mode filtering.

The last components in the filtering part are the unpolarized 100nF 630V capacitors. When the frequency increases, the capacitive reactance (Xc) of the capacitor decreases so it has a important role in reducing the high frequency noise effects. To increase the performance, one is connected to the input and the other one is connected to the output of the filtering part.

 

For more detail: PIC Controlled Relay Driver using PIC16F84A




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