Single microcontroller based 12v to 230v inverter with intelligent battery charging
Single microcontroller based 12v to 230v inverter with intelligent battery charging (Made by me)
Here I describe the circuit as:
*single microcontroller/controller (ATMEGA16/32)
*no op-amps, only chips are the micro, opto-couplers and regulator (7805)
*thyristor controlled battery charger, using the MOSFET body diode as the AC-DC rectifier
*charger maintains the battery voltage (top) between 13.2-13.5v (adjustable) to maximize the battery life
*Only 93 parts in entire control circuit
*Delay between switchover to prevent inrush current
The method used here, described for those who may benefit from it:
-Initialize all ports and peripherals[ADC, Timers, Compare Modules]
-Initialize interrupts for Timer0 and compare module for
-For PWM, use Timer1 and 16-bit Phase and Frequency Correct PWM mode so the PWM runs completely on the hardware level without need for interaction to keep it running
-The AVR senses whether mains is present or not using a standard opto (4N35).
-If mains present, check battery level
-If battery level < 13.5v (this voltage is set using a pot, so can be easily adjusted), charge at the set current(set with a pot)
-If battery level > 13.5v, stop charging
-While battery > 13.2v, stop charging
-If battery voltage drops instantly start charging again
-Triac based, uses Timer0 and compare module with interrupt for phase angle control for fast charge, never overcharges battery, battery hasn’t ever heated up till now and 2 year old battery still gives good backup, so charging algorithm is good for battery life
-If mains absent, initialize Timer and start PWM
-Check battery voltage, stop PWM and indicate on LED when battery falls below 10.8v (this is also set with a pot), response time is fast so a short circuit that produces an instant voltage drop is detected
-Check load level, check against preset level (set with pot) and if too high, shut down and indicate
-Check output voltage, adjust as required
This is a quasi-sine wave inverter that I made since it was more demanding than the sine at the time. I have a project with sine as well with a PIC but it’s not very organized.
IPS stands for “Intelligent Power Supply”, in short the inverter. IPS on means inverter on.
No, they’re power MOSFETs. The design here uses IRFZ44N x 5 on each leg for 800W. You can use other MOSFETs as well. I haven’t tried though. There are 4 transistors for driving the MOSFETs, on the control board – 2xPN2222, 2xPN2907. There are 2 more transistors on the MOSFET board.
It’s 12-30v with changing resistors. For upto 48v, you need to change the 7805 with an auxilary supply, that’s the only change.
If battery increases while charging, then there is battery full charged indicator.
Output volt is adjusted to achieve 230V or 220V as required, that is for feedback voltage setting or output voltage setting when running in inverter mode. I set mine at 230V.
Battery max is for battery high cut voltage, to cut off charging when battery reaches a specific voltage. I set mine at around 13.5v.
Charging current is for setting the current at which battery is to be charged. I set mine for 12-15A for 70Ah battery for quick charge.
Overload is for setting the maximum load. A load (800W in this case) is applied while running in inverter mode, and the pot is adjusted slowly till at one point the inverter turns off and the LED shows overload.
Low battery is for setting battery low cut voltage. I set mine for 10.5v.
On the board, the pots are labeled “HI CUT, LO CUT, OVERLOAD, FEEDBACK, CHARGING CURRENT”. The one for current is a pot that is adjustable in small units.